Saturday, August 17, 2019

Example Essay on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavior problem that is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity and, until recently, was diagnosed primarily in children. It was first thought as Hyperkinetic Disorder of Childhood in 1957 and was often called hyperactivity or syndrome that is hyperactive it was renamed ADHD in 1987. The renaming also represented a shift in focus from hyperactive behavior to the inattention as a characteristic that is major of disorder.

The centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates 7 percent of school-age (6-10) children have ADHD, write my essay for me with a ratio of 3 to 1 boys to girls in the United States. White children tend to have higher rates of ADHD diagnosis than minority children. The definition of ADHD has broadened in recent years. Now, in addition to school-age children, ADHD is diagnosed in preschool children, adolescents, and adults, which plays a role in the rising prevalence.

The most common treatment that is medical ADHD is with psychoactive medications, especially ethyl-phenidate (Ritalin) as well as other stimulant medications (Cylert, Adderall, and Concerta). Treatment rates have increased enormously in recent years; in 2004 the Department of Health and Human Services estimated 5 million children ages 5 to 17 were treated for ADHD in 2000-02, up from 2.6 million in 1994. The treatment and diagnosis of ADHD is a lot higher in america compared to other countries, but evidence implies that considering that the 1990s it’s been rising far away as well, as an example, in the United Kingdom.

What causes ADHD are not well understood, although various theories have been offered, including dietary, genetic, psychological, and social ones. In the past 2 decades, medical researchers have reported genetic susceptibilities to ADHD and discovered differences in brain imaging results from individuals with ADHD and folks without ADHD. Although bio-medical theories of ADHD predominate, what causes ADHD continue to be largely unknown. Some contend that even when you will find biological differences when considering children with ADHD as well as other children, what is observed could be a reflection of variations in temperament as opposed to a specific disorder.

ADHD as well as its treatment have already been controversial at the very least since the 1970s.

Critics have expressed nervous about the drugging of schoolchildren, contending that ADHD is just a label for childhood behavior that is deviant. Others grant that some children may have a neurological disorder, but maintain that there is an overdiagnosis of ADHD. From time to time some educators and parents have raised concerns about undesireable effects from long-term utilization of stimulant medications. Child psychiatrists see ADHD as the most childhood that is common disorder and consider psychoactive medication treatment as well established and safe. Parent and consumer groups, such as for instance CHADD (Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), tend to offer the perspective that is medical of.

Because the 1990s there has been a significant increase in the diagnosis and remedy for adult ADHD. Whereas childhood ADHD is normally school or parent identified, adult ADHD appears to be largely self-identified. Some researchers have noted that lots of apparently successful adults seek an ADHD diagnosis and medication treatment because of learning about the disorder from professionals, the media, or others, and then seeing their particular life problems reflected within the description of ADHD (e.g., disorganized life, inability to sustain attention, moving from job to job). Adult ADHD remains controversial, however. Many psychiatrists have embraced adult ADHD as a major social problem, with claims of tens of vast amounts of dollars in lost productivity and household income due to the disorder, whereas critics have suggested it is “the medicalization of underperformance.”

Sociologists view ADHD as a vintage case regarding the medicalization of deviant behavior, defining a previously nonmedical problem as a medical one and the remedy for ADHD as a type of medical control that is social.

Whereas some have noticed that when a challenge becomes medicalized it is less stigmatized, because its origin is observed as physiological or biomedical as opposed to as associated with volitional behavior, others point to the social consequences of medicalizing children’s behavior problems. Some have suggested that medicalizing deviant behavior as ADHD individualizes complex social problems and allows for powerful forms of medical social control (medications) to be used. Secondary gain, accruing social benefits from a diagnosis that is medical is also an issue with ADHD. You will find reports of adolescents seeking an ADHD diagnosis to gain learning disability status in order to have certain benefits, such as for instance untimed tests or alternative assignments. The definition of ADHD is a prime example of diagnostic expansion, the widening definition of an accepted diagnosis from a sociological view. For some, ADHD is currently deemed a lifelong disorder, with an expanding age groups for diagnosis (from preschool to adult) and a decreased threshold for psychoactive medication treatment. Although it is achievable that the behaviors characteristic of ADHD are increasing because of some sort of social cause, it is more likely that a growing amount of people are increasingly being identified, labeled, and treated as having ADHD.

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